## Tuesday, March 10, 2020

### Avogadros Number - Example Chemistry Problem

Avogadros Number Chemistry Problem Avogadros number is used in chemistry when you need to work with very large numbers. Its the basis for the mole unit of measurement, which provides an easy way to convert between moles, mass, and the number of molecules. For example, you can use the number to find the number of water molecules in a single snowflake. (Hint: Its an enormous number!) Avogadros Number Example Problem - Number of Molecules in a Given Mass Question: How many H2O molecules are there in a snowflake weighing 1 mg? Solution: Step 1 - Determine the mass of 1 mole of H2O Snowflakes are made of water, or H2O. To obtain the mass of 1 mole of water, look up the atomic masses for hydrogen and oxygen from the Periodic Table. There are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen for every H2O molecule, so the mass of H2O is: mass of H2O 2 (mass of H) mass of Omass of H2O 2 ( 1.01 g ) 16.00 gmass of H2O 2.02 g 16.00 gmass of H2O 18.02 g Step 2 - Determine the number of H2O molecules in one gram of water One mole of H2O is 6.022 x 1023 molecules of H2O (Avogadros number). This relation is then used to convert a number of H2O molecules to grams by the ratio: mass of X molecules of H2O / X molecules mass of a mole of H20 molecules / 6.022 x 1023 molecules Solve for X molecules of H2O X molecules of H2O ( 6.022 x 1023 H2O molecules ) / ( mass of a mole H2O Ã‚ · mass of X molecules of H2O Enter the values for the question:X molecules of H2O ( 6.022 x 1023 H2O molecules ) / ( 18.02g Ã‚ · 1 g )X molecules of H2O 3.35 x 1022 molecules/gram There are 3.35 x 1022 H2O molecules in 1 g of H2O. Our snowflake weighs 1 mg and 1 g 1000 mg. X molecules of H2O 3.35 x 1022 molecules/gram Ã‚ · (1 g /1000 mg )X molecules of H2O 3.35 x 1019 molecules/mg Answer There are 3.35 x 1019 H2O molecules in a 1 mg snowflake. Avogadros Number Problem Key Takeaways Avogadros number is 6.02 x 1023. It is the number of particles in a mole.You can use Avogadros number to convert between mass and the number of molecules of any pure substance.If you are given the mass of a sample (such as a snowflake), convert the mass to moles, and then use Avogadros number to convert from moles to molecules.

## Thursday, February 6, 2020

### INFORNO operating system Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

INFORNO operating system - Research Proposal Example Here, the term varied computing systems involves not just desktop computers but a range of devices such as palm tops, laptops, set-top boxes and other communication equipment. The challenge in writing applications for a distributed and hybrid environment is threefold: firstly, the development environments vary greatly, secondly, systems and the way these systems present resources vary greatly and finally a varied network has varying security and authorization policies that may not necessarily synchronize across the network (vitanuaova.com, nd). Inferno was developed as a successor of Plan 9 OS primarily with the help of Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson in the Bell Labs computing Sciences research centre in New Jersey, USA in 1995 (operating-system.org, 2008). The entire team of INFERNO includes Sean Dorward, Rob Pike, David Pressotto, Dennis Ritchie, Howard Trickey and Phil Winterbottom. The primary motivation behind INFERNO is generating the capability to include a range of everyday use hardware devices into a distributed network. INFERNO OS facilitates the creation and support of distributed services in the new and emerging world of network environments, such as those typified by CATV and direct satellite broadcasting systems, as well as the Internet (Dorward et al 2002). Inferno is designed to accommodate the diverse providers of content and services from equally diverse transport and presentation platforms. From the above discussion it is evident that the main strength of INFERNO lies in its portability across several dimensions. Primarily, it is portable across various processor architectures. Currently it works with Intel x86, Intel XScale IBM Power PC, ARM, SunSPARC and MIPS (vitanuova, nd). Secondly INFERNO is portable across platforms. It can run as either a stand-alone operating system or as an application under the regular operating systems such as Window s and Linux (Dorward, Pike, Pressotto, Ritchie, Trickey and Winterbottom, 2002). Inferno's underlying architecture, the STYX protocol is the reason behind Inferno's interoperability. The protocol has been designed such that all communication is essentially handled through the file system which is very similar to UNIX OS (electronicdesign, 2000). Almost all of the INFERNO's capabilities and functionalities are based on Limbo, which is the programming language of Inferno. The primary reason for choosing Limbo to support INFERNO is because of its ability to support distributed computing. Multi-tasking is supported directly by the Limbo language. It supports multi-tasking with the help of independently scheduled threads that can be spawned, and coordinated which enable communication between tasks. It supports modular programming, strong type checking, interprocess communication, automatic garbage collection and simple abstract data types (Ritchie, 2005). Another motivation behind Limbo is its similarity to commonly used languages such as C and PASCAL (Dorward et al, 1997). So, if one needs to port INFERNO from one hardware or a system to another all one has to do is to modify a few hardware dependent functions. This is how it turns out to be an excellent operating system for all types of hardware and distributed computing. The system can be used to build portable client and server applications